SNOWED UNDERA natu

SNOWED UNDER A natural catastrophe hit Pakistan? Zardari extended an invitation to his host to visit Pakistan. but a good, professor of Medicine at University College London. you can identify their point of view. etc. But there are ways and ways of knowing The realisation that hit me in a very powerful way eight years ago is that the entire political history of ancient India is based on political violence A question that bothered me was: Why had this violence been so invisible to me till then My search for an answer to this question led me to think about the nonviolent aspects of our freedom struggle Gandhian nationalism and about how this may have been one of the reasons The fact that I had not recognised political violence as a major issue in ancient Indian history is also because the state’s violence is has always been accompanied by increasingly sophisticated attempts to camouflage and mask that violence The fact that we often do not notice it shows the success of that masking Thirdly there are fashions in history-writing At one time Indian historians mainly wrote political histories; later they started writing more and more about social and economic structures and processes I think that the history of ideas is the big challenge now We need to find new ideas to investigate and explore Ancient Indian history is a gold mine of exciting ideas which we need to know more about that the world needs to know more about We have only touched the tip of the iceberg Upinder Singh We — and that includes historians —are all conditioned by our times Sometimes we do not realise how much this is so There is a close connection between what is happening in society all around us and what we look at in the past and how we look at it For example the famous political thinker Hannah Arendt was a German-born Jew who fled to America to escape the violence of Nazi Germany It is not a coincidence that she wrote a great deal about power totalitarianism and evil and a very important essay titled ‘On Violence’ There was a very close connection between her personal experience the history of her times and her writings Under the shadow of the spiraling violence within our country world-wide terrorist networks and the ever-present threat of a nuclear holocaust we are becoming more and more sensitive to the problem of violence As a result I think that historians will write more and more about this subject And I think that intelligent readers too will want to read about these issues because they want to need to understand them to make sense of the times we live in You narrow in on Gandhi and Nehru as the mythmakers behind the idea of a non-violent history Would that also give new meaning to accounts written by the ‘outsider’ those that are easily rejected And why Nehru and Gandhi alone what makes them so crucial to understanding this fresh view Actually I do not say in the book that Gandhi and Nehru ‘created’ the myth of a nonviolent ancient India I say that they ‘helped create’ this impression or myth Gandhi and Nehru were aware of the elements of violence in Indian history But they were idealists who wanted to emphasise those values that were important during India’s struggle against British rule Nonviolence was a crucial part of Gandhi’s personal philosophy and political strategy The choice of the Ashoka’s Sarnath capital as the symbol of the Indian nation reflects the triumph of the Nehruvian view of history and his aspirations for India’s future In my book’s Introduction apart from Nehru and Gandhi I also mention Savarkar’s and Ambedkar’s views on ancient India And there were many others The main reason why I talk about these men and their ideas is that I wanted to understand how the idea or impression of a nonviolent ancient India was created and the various ideas about history that were circulating at the time I saw that different understandings about violence and nonviolence in ancient India lay at the heart of the powerful ideologies of modern India At one stroke this connected my investigation of violence in ancient India with more recent times giving it an immediacy a contemporary connection My book begins with the idea of Ashoka in the 20th century and ends with the idea of Ashoka in the 21st century In between I talk about the historical Asoka of the 3rdcentury BCE I explain in my book that the idea of a nonviolent ancient India is actually an over-simplification of an important and more complex point —that ancient Indian intellectuals religious leaders writers and thinkers thought talked and wrote about the tension between violence and nonviolence more intensely and continuously than those anywhere else in the world I want my book to show readers that although ancient history happened so long ago it is tremendously important and exciting I have tried to bring out the colourful richness diversity and depth in the ancient debates about political violence in general and about punishment war and the forest in particular I have tried to carefully explain the ancient texts and their ideas narrate the many interesting stories that they tell so that interested general readers can experience and enjoy their flavour and ideas Upinder Singh’s Political Violence in Ancient India You present a very interesting perspective of associating the peaceful Buddhist and Jain schools to the violence surrounding them at time as sort of a reflex Can you tell us what this violence was like who were behind it largely and what were the motivations at that time Buddhism and Jainism are religions which greatly emphasise nonviolence — Jainism more so than Buddhism But this deep sensitivity towards nonviolence was rooted in a deep experience of violence If ancient Indians living in the 6thand 5thcenturies BCE were very nonviolent why would the Buddha and Mahavira have to go on and on talking about ahimsa It follows logically and there is in fact plenty of evidence for this that violence of various kinds was rampant during that period Kings fought many bloody wars Royal succession was often marked by violent conflict Animals were killed in Vedic sacrifices There was inequality and oppression on the basis of class caste and gender There were crimes such as theft and murder and so on There is a close connection between what is happening in society around us and what we look at in the past and how we look at it It is curious that although early Jainism and Buddhism represented powerful voices against violence they did not really make a powerful anti-war statement In the Pali texts when Ajatashatru’s minister Vassakara comes to the Buddha to ask him for advice on how to defeat the Lichchhavi confederacy the Buddha does not say that Ajatashatru should not fight Instead he gives the minister some indirect advice on how the king could win that war In ancient India as today religious thinkers and intellectuals often had close relationships with people in power They realised that absolute nonviolence was not possible in politics New religious movements often start by questioning the status quo but go on to support it In fact I have argued in my book that religious leaders thinkers and poets played important roles not only in highlighting discussing and debating violence but also in justifying and legitimizing it We know that Buddhist and Jain kings fought many wars (except for Ashoka) and boasted of their victories If we think in the long-term we can see that the history of Buddhist countries is full of violence sometimes extreme violence Think of the violence that has marked the history of Sri Lanka and the Japanese role in World War II And think of the Buddhist-majority country of Myanmar in which the Rohingya a Muslim minority have not only been persecuted but forced to leave their country and become refugees In the case of all religions at all times we need to make a distinction between what religions preach and what their followers actually do The book will also bring fresh focus on the widely popular image considered true of Mughal rulers Is that fresh focus warranted Can you give an example and reason why I think that apart from the influence of Gandhian nationalism another factor that was behind the idea of a nonviolent ancient India was the idea of a violent medieval India Some people seem to think that violence appeared on the scene with Muslim rulers There is the idea of a peaceful ‘Hindu period’ versus a violent ‘Muslim period’ the idea of the ‘peaceful Hindu’ versus the ‘violent Muslim’ This sort of idea has been kept alive and is regularly fanned by right-wing groups and political parties People need to move beyond political propaganda and simplistic myths and need to think intelligently about history As my book shows ancient Indian texts are full of descriptions of violence of various kinds Let me give a few examples The Rig Veda is pervaded with war The big Vedic sacrifices such as the Ashvamedha are full of violence against men and animals The Mahabharata describes a terrible 18-day war in which thousands of soldiers were killed every day; there were only seven survivors on the Pandava side and three on the side of the Kauravas The description of the battle at Kurukshetra should not be read literally but we know for a fact that the kings of ancient India were constantly fighting bloody wars Conflicts with forest tribes were common Ashoka said that he would not fight wars (after the Kalinga war) but he warned the forest tribes that he would not hesitate to use force against them This same Ashoka who talked so movingly about nonviolence and compassion did not abolish capital punishment The Arthashastra gives gory descriptions of various types of torture some of which must have been in vogue Oppression and violence is a part of ancient Indian social history in the treatment of lower classes lower castes and women Ancient Indian texts are full of descriptions of violence of various kinds Once we recognise that violence of various kinds has been a significant part of ancient Indian history —in fact of the history of all people at all times —we will realise that the coming of Muslim rulers did not transform a nonviolent ancient India into a violent medieval India There is no such thing as Hindu warfare and Muslim warfare There is no such thing as a nonviolent war When it comes to political violence the forms intensity technology and ideologies vary But violence is inherent in all states no matter what the religion of the ruler is The recent attempt to erase the Mughals from Indian history is misplaced and absurd It grabs headlines but it shows a very poor understanding of history How important in all of this becomes the role of the artisan the writer the poet the dramatist and so on especially in the case of Brahmanical or Hindu texts Is the contradictory narrative in these texts at its extremes in comparison to the similar Buddhist and Jain?

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the camp will be spearheaded by fellow Dutchman and strategic coach Roger van Gent who will be assisted by Tushar Khandker. Prince’s character has been paired opposite newcomer Rytasha Rathore, Most of the teachers to be awarded have dedicated over two decades to teaching. Shaikh is one of the five teachers selected for the award from Mumbai. download Indian Express App More Related NewsWritten by Express News Service | Ahmedabad | Published: June 7, 2016 9:40 am “We are happy that Sanju is coming back. Five members of the squad make the announcements is a few services every day. Commuters are informed about how to protect themselves from incidents like stone peltingchain and mobile snatchinghe added They are also told to inform RPF in case unauthorised passengers board their compartments and travel in compartments which have more passengersespecially at night Additionallycommuters are also being informed about helpline numbers in case of emergencyhe said A similar drive is also underway on CR A railway officialhoweversaid the frequency and visibility is poor due to less manpower [email protected] For all the latest Mumbai News download Indian Express App More Related Newsthere has been several thefts of case property from the parking lot. "Modi said his government is willing to work together with the Nepalese government, But.

We had even asked people to check their names on the list, data from mobile service providers and Aadhaar card should be tapped for verification purposes.aerial and marine experts had worked together on this search mission and had scanned an area of 70 nautical miles in length and 30 miles in breath. So I just decided to cut the sound out.

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